Tillandsia setacea
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Tillandsia setacea
Rob Bower 11/17

Tillandsia setacea Swartz, Fl. Ind. Occ. I: 593. 1797; L. B. Smith, Phytologia 8: 219. 1962.
Viscum caryophylloides minus, foliorum imis viridibus apicibus subrubicundis, flore tripetalo purpureo, semine filamentoso Sloane, Jam. 77.1696; Hist. I: 190, pl. 122. 1707. Type. Jamaica, Sloane s n (BM). Tillandsia tenuifolia Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 286. 1753; in part, as to Plumier s n (P), not as to type (defined by elimination): Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. ed. 10. 2: 974. 1759). See below
Renealmia recurvata ß Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 287. 1753. Type. Jamaica, Sloane s n (BM).
? Tillandsia monostachya Bartram, Trav. 61.1791; nomen; non Linnaeus, 1762.
Tillandsia caespitosa LeConte, Ann. Lyc. Nat. Hist. N. Y. 2: 131. 1826. Type.

, LeConte s n (P).
Platystachys setacea (Swartz) Beer, Bromel. 80. 1857.
Diaphoranthema versicolor Beer, Bromel. 155. 1857. Based on Sloane, Hist. 1: pl. I22, fig. I. 1707.
Renealmia monostachya Linnaeus ex Baker, Handb. Bromel. 175. 1889; nomen in synon.
Vriesea setacea (Swartz) Hooker ex Mez, DC. Monogr. Phan. 9: 688. 1896; as to basionym only.
Tillandsia bromoides Mez, Repert. Sp. Nov. 12: 419. 1913. Type. Province of Barahona, Republica Dominicana, Fuertes s n (B, B photo 1191/24), 27 Nov 1911.

Desc from S&D p920-2
Plant stemless.
Leaves many in a densely fasciculate rosette, 2-5 dm long, usually much exceeding the inflorescence, densely and finely appressed-lepidote throughout;
Sheaths triangular-ovate, conspicuous, about 2 cm long and 8 mm wide, ferruginous, often keeled;
Blades setiform, usually less than 1 mm in diameter for most of their length.
Scape erect or ascending, very slender, sparsely lepidote;
Scape-bracts erect, closely involute, densely imbricate, lanceolate, acute, filiform-laminate, chartaceous, densely pale appressed-lepidote.
Inflorescence bipinnate or frequently simple and distichous flowered, slenderly ellipsoid, lax at least below, to 12 cm long but usually much less;
Axes slender, lepidote;
Primary bracts like the upper scape-bracts, suberect, the sheath shorter than the axillary spike but the blade usually much exceeding it;
Spikes subsessile, turned edgewise to the axis of the inflorescence as in Lolium, linear-lanceolate in outline, acute, 2-5 cm long, only 5-7 mm wide at anthesis, complanate. Floral bracts erect, densely imbricate, broadly ovate, acute, 8-14 mm long or rarely to 19 mm, exceeding the sepals, subcoriaceous, even or nerved, densely pale-appressed-lepidote at least when young, scarcely or not at all carinate;
Flowers subsessile.
Sepals elliptic-oblong, acute, 7-12 mm long, glabrous, carinate and connate posteriorly; Petals tubular-erect, linear, 2 cm long, violet;
Stamens and pistil exserted.
Capsule slenderly cylindric, 25 mm long.
Type. Swartz s n (S, GH photo), without exact locality, Jamaica.
DISTRIBUTION. Epiphytic, from near sea level to 800 m alt, Florida, Greater Antilles, Mexico, northern Central America, Brazil.
UNITED STATES. FLORIDA, Duval: Jacksonville, 19 May 1894, Curtiss 5055 (US); Alachua: Curtiss 2847 (US); Silver Springs, Mar 1891, Ward s n (US); Eureka, 22 Oct 1960, Ward & Myint 2320 (FLAS, US); Levy: Gulf Hammock, 1877, Garber s n (US); 23 Mar 1926, Miller 367 (US); Lake: Eustis, May 1894, Nash 774 (US); Jul 1894, 1499 (US); Aug 1894,1702 (GH, MICH, US); Citrus: Ozelo, 16 Jul 1961, Ward 2710 (FLAS, US); Hernando: Brooksville, Feb 1916, Norton 434 (US); Brevard: Merritt's Island, Curtiss 2848 (GH, MICH, US); Polk: Peace Creek, 31 Mar 1880, Smith s n (US); Carter's, 19 Jan 1909, Harper 12 (US); Highlands: Sebring, 13 Aug 1950, Wilbur & Webster 2621 (MICH, US); Manatee: Manatee, Dec 1877, Garber s n (US); Sarasota: Keys, May 1876, Garber s n (US); Glades: Palmdale, 8 Aug 1945, Brass 15454 (US); Hendry: La Belle, 25 Ju11959, Ward 1618 (FLAS); Lee: Palmetto Hammock, 1900, Hitchcock 349 (US); Fort Meyer, 17 Jun 1912, Harshberger s n (US); 21 Feb 1916, Standley 12574 (US); 28 Feb 1927 , 52530 (US); Collier: Royal Palm Hammock, 28 Aug 1954, Thorne 14780 (US); Dade: Miami, 30 Oct 1896, Evermann 508 (US); Everglade Keys, 23 Feb 1915, Small &Mosier 5506 (NY, US); Sep 1917, Safford & Mosier 80 (US); Naranja, 23 Feb 1920, Young 113 (US); Redlands, 2 Feb 1930, Moldenke 545 (NY, US); Long Pine Key, 15 Jan 1958, Craighead 7 (US). MEXICO. SINALOA: Concepcion to Rosario, 4 Ju11897, Rose 1533 (US). NAYARIT: Tepic, 17 Sep 1926, Mexia 655-A (GH, US); Compostela, Jul 1957, McVaugh 15328 (MICH, US); 15335 (MICH, US); 5 Sep 1960, Rzedowski 14363 (IPMEX). JALISCO: Puento San Pedro, 31 Jul 1960, Iltis, Koeppen & Iltis 600 (US, WIS). GUATEMALA. RECE TALHULEU: Neuva Lind to Champerico, 18 Feb 1941, Standley 87776 (F). CUBA. ISLA DE PINOS: Nueva Gerona, 17 Feb 1904, Curtiss 355 (GH, US); Santa Fe, 1916, Britton & Wilson 14960 (NY, US); Sierra de Casas, Dec 1951, Alain & Killip 2353 (US). PINAR DEL RIO: Cerro de Cabras, 26 Oct 1904, Baker & Abarca 3713 (POM); Corrientes Bay, Mar 1911, Britton & Cowell 9889 (NY, US); Sumidero, Aug 1912, Shafer 13824 (NY, US); 13847 (NY, US). HABANA: Santiago de las Vegas, 3 Nov 1904, Baker & Abarca 3861 (POM); Villa Real, 30 Apr 1914, Ekman 528 (S); Somorrostro, 14 Feb 1938, Cayabia 61 (LS). LAS VILLAS: Sagua la Grande, 12 Aug 1920, Leon & Loustalot 9468 (US); Soledad, Cienfuegos, 5 Feb 1930, Jack 7637 (GH, US); Gavilan, Aug 1941, Howard 6297 (AA, US). CAMAGUEY: Ganado, Mar 1909, Shafer 902 (NY, US). ORIENTE: Monte Verde, 1865, Wright 684 e p (US); Baracoa, Jan 1902, Pollard & Palmer 61 (US); 1910, Shafer 3959 (NY, US); Paso Estancia, Apr 1909, Shafer 1595 (NY, US); Bayate, 8 Sep 1914, Ekman 2776 (S). JAMAICA. MIDDLESEX, St. Mary: Castleton Gardens, I Mar 1953, Bengry s n (IJ, US); St. Catharine: Ewarton, Feb 1920, Maxon & Killip 340 (US); Point Hill, 18 Ju11952, Proctor 6957 (IJ, US); St. Ann: Mount Diablo, Ju11926, Maxon 10395 (US); Moneague, 6 Mar 1936, Hunnewell & Griscom 14283 (GH); Lydford, 2 Ju1 1955, Howard & Proctor 14275 (IJ, US). CORNWALL, Trelawny: Wakefield, 22 Aug 1955, Proctor 10541 (IJ, US); Windsor, 20 Aug 1956, Proctor 15629 (IJ, US); Good Hope, 27 Aug 1956, Proctor 15714 (IJ, US); Manchester: Mandeville, Sep 1908, Britton 3111 (NY, US); Newport, 20 Dec 1951, Proctor 6072 (IJ, US); St. Elizabeth: Springfield, 1849, Wullschlaegel 1045 e p (M); Pepper, 13 Mar 1931, Miller 1340 (US); Westmoreland: St. Johns, Purdie s n (K); Little Bay, 18 Nov 1955, Proctor 11149 (IJ, US). HAITI. St. Michel d.Atalaye, Nord, 20 Nov 1925, Leonard 7301 (US); 7303 (US); Marmelade, 19 Dec 1925, Leonard 8146 (GH, US); Dondon, 6 Jan 1926, Leonard 8591 (US); Morne de la Houe, 12 Jan 1926, Ekman H-5405 (GH, S, US); Plaisance, 27 Jan 1926, Leonard 9272 (US); Pilate, Nord, 11 Feb 1926, Leonard 9692 (US); Gros Morne, l'Artibonite, 18 Feb 1926, Leonard 9945 (US); 10017-A (US); Jean Rabel, 6 Feb 1929, Leonard 12908 (US); 4 Mar 1929, 13745 (GH, US); Mole St. Nicolas, 16 Feb 1929, Leonard 13299 (US); Bombardopolis, 22 Feb 1929, Leonard 13431 (GH, US); Santiago, Hato del Yague, 15 Oct 1930, Ekman H-16055 (S); Cadiac,1 Oct 1941, Holdridge 826 (GH, US). REPUBLICA DOMINICANA. MONTE CRISTI: Baitoa, 13 Feb 1949, Jimenez 1806 (US). AZUA: Azua, Mar 1913, Rose, Fitch & Russell 3892 (NY, US); 29 Aug 1946, Howard 8653 (GH, US). SAN JUAN: San Juan de la Maguana, 5 Sep 1946, Howard 8804 (GH, US); San Juan, Sep 1946, Howard 8831 (GH, US). BARAHONA: Pedernales, Aug 1946, Howard 8281 (GH, US). PUERTO PLATA: Hato del Yague, 7 Oct 1945, Jimenez 850 (US). PACIFICADOR: Pimentel, 23 JuI 1929, Ekman H-13263 (S); Gaspar Hernandez, 8 Apr 1950, Jimenez 2004 (US). LA VEGA: Piedra Blanca, 18 Jan 1946, Allard 14730 (US); 5 Nov 1947, 16658 (US); Constanza. 5 Dec 1947. Allard 17624 (US); 17626 (GH. US); Cevicos. 12 May 1956. Marcano in Jimenez 3345 (US); Rio Cafia, San Rafael, 18 Apr 1957. Jimenez et a1 3506-A (US). SANTO DOMINGO: Nigua. Sep 1921, Faris 624 (US); Bayaguana to Guerra. 19 Oct 1946. Howard 9517 (GH. US); Mana. 22 Nov 1947. Allard s n (US). MACORIS: San Pedrode Macoris. 7 Mar 1913. Rose, Fitch & Russell 3729 (NY. US). SEIBO: Seibo, 31 Ju11918. Stevenson 7079 (US). PUERTO RICO. Utuado to Arecibo, 13 Ju1 1901. Underwood & Griggs 807 (US); Juana Diaz, 20 Mar 1913, Britton & Marble 2295 (NY. US); Ponce. 17 Sep 1943. Sargent 3130 (US). BRAZIL. PARA: Poeppig s n (P).

Detail from MacVaugh in Novo Galiciana 1989
Tillandsia setacea Sw. Fl. Ind. Occ. 1: 593. 1797.
On trees, dry hills and partially shaded ravines, sometimes on oaks, commonly in tropical deciduous forest with Acacia, Cordia, Bursera, Jatropha, 200-1300 m on the Pacific slope, flowering Jun-Jul. Sin., Nay., Jal.; Centr. Amer.; s Fla.; W. Ind. (Jamaica, Swartz, S, the holotype, cited by Smith); S. Amer.
Between San Blas and Tepic (Gardner 1341!); Tepic (Mexia 655-A, cited by Smith, not seen); road to Puerto Vallarta, N of San Juan Caxstle (Norris 13649); between Compostela & Mazatan (Gentry & Gilly 10689; McVaugh 15328, 15335); 10 km S of Compostela, road to Las Varas (Rzedowski I4363); Chamela, Estacion de Biologia (Magana & Lott 17; Magana et al. 32, 33; all at MEXU, cited by Magana, not seen); N of Tecalitldn (McVaugh 14956); Mpio. Tecalitlan, Puente San Pedra (Iltis et al. 600).
Acaulescent, often forming large tufts or suborbicular colonies consisting of many plants; individual plants small, with 5-10 leaves in a rosette;
sheaths ovate-triangular, 1-2 cm long, 6-12 mm wide at base, the outer ones sometimes (seldom) bladeless, pointed;
blades linear filiform, involute,l5-3$ cm long, usually surpassing the inflorescence, 1-2 mm wide, inconspicuously lepidote, bright green or sometimes (McVaugh 13333) reddish;
inflorescence erect, 10-25 (-40) cm high;
bracts of the scape -(peduncle) caudate-acuminate above a closely enveloping sheath, the sheaths of the middle bracts usually not overlapping the base of the next succeeding bract, thus exposing the axis;
flowering axis simple (as usually in ours) or compound, 2-4 (-6) cm long;
primary bracts like the upper scape-bracts, suberect, green, 1.3-2 cm long, the blade usually not surpassing the axillary spike if any;
floral bracts erect, closely imbricated, ovate, acute, (8-) 12-14 mm long, 4-6 mm wide, coriaceous, not or scarcely keeled, densely pale-appressed-lepidote at least when young, green ("green to reddish brown"); flowers distichous, subsessile;
sepals elliptic-oblong, acute, (7-) 10-12 mm long, coriaceous, glabrous, the adaxial pair keeled, connate about to the middle;
petals tubular-erect, linear, 2 cm long, violet ("morados," "purplish red," "pink") or "amethyst" (G);
stamens exserted;
fruit cylindric,l.5-2.5 cm long;
seeds 1.5-2 cm long.

This is one of the rather numerous species in different plant-families that occur on the Pacific slope of Mexico in rather limited areas in Jalisco and Nayarit and sometimes in Sinaloa, but outside this area chiefly in the West Indies, sometimes in Central America; often nowhere else in Mexico.
Smith (1938) treated Tillandsia setacea and T. bartramii as synonyms of T. tenuifolia L. (Sp. Pl. ed. 2. 410. 1762), and some of our material now referred to T. setacea was originally identified as T. tenuifolia. In his later works (as in Smith & Downs, 1977) Smith recognized three different species, to which the above names were applied. One of these, T. tenuifolia, is primarily West Indian and South American, and apparently does not occur in Mexico. It resembles T. setacea but the inflorescence is polystichous-flowered.

Detail from Baker 1889 (note the confusion with T. juncea)
78. T. SETACEA Sw. Prodr. Fl. Ind. Occ. 593; Baker in Ref. Bot. t. 288 (M.D.) non Hook in Bot. Mag. t. 8275.
T. tenuifolia Linn. ex parte (Sloane Jam. i. 190, t. 122, fig. 1), E. Morren in Belg. Hort. 1876, 199, t. 14.
T. juncifolia Regel Gartenfl. t. 811,
T. Selloa K. Koch.
T. juncea and T. pinifolia Leconte.
T. Bartrami Elliott.
Bonapartea juncea Ruiz et Pav. Fl. Peruv. t. 262.
Renealmia monastachya Linn. herb. !
Diaphoranthema versicolor Beer.
Leaves 80-40 in a dense rosette, subulate from a small ovate base, firm in texture, ½-1 ft, long, 1/12-1/8 in. diam. low down, thinly lepidote.
Peduncle 3-9 in. long; bract-leaves with short setaceous points.
Spikes few, crowded, dense, 1-2 in. long, ¼-? in. diam. flower-bracts oblong- cuspidate, green, ½- ¾ in. long: Calyx ½ in. long.
Petals bright violet, more than twice as long as the calyx, convolute in a cylindrical tube shorter than the stamens.
Capsule valves linear, an inch long.
Hab. Mexico and Southern United States to South Brazil. T. caricifolia E. Morren, is a robust variety with leaves stouter than in the type.
The Mexican T. quadrangularis Mart. et Gal. Enum. 9, founded on Galeotti 4917, is said to differ by its yellow flowers.
T. caespitosa Leconte, appears to be a dwarf variety, with 3-4 flowers in a simple spike and leaves tinged with red.

From Mez 1935
23. T. tenuifolia L. Spec. Pl. ed. 2. (1762-63) 440; Morr. in Belg. Hortic. XXVI. (1876) 199, t. 14. –
Renealmia recurvata P. L. Spec. Pl. ed. 1. (1753) 287. –
Tillandsia setacea Swartz (non alior.) Prodr. (1788) I. 593. –
T. caespitosa Lec.. (non alior.) in Ann. lyc. Nat. hist. N. -York 1826, II. 129. –
T. monostachya Bartr. (non alior.) Trav. (1794) 50. –
T. Bartrami Ell. (non alior.) Sketch (1821-24) 379. –
Diaphoranthema versicolor,Beer, Bromel. (1857) 155. –
Renealmia monostachya L, herb. (non alibi) ex Bak. Bromel. (1889) 175. –
Viscum caryophyll. minus fol. im. virid. apice subrubicundis Sloane, Cat. (1696) 77 et Hist. Jam. I. (1707) 190, t. 122, f. 1. –
Tillandsia 2. parasitica parva, fol. tenuiss. erectis P. Browne, Jam. 1. ed. (1756) 184. –
? Viscum caryophyll. angustifol., flor. caeruleis Catesb. Carol. II. (1733) 89, t. 89. –
Statura 0,1-0,2 m vel raro paullo ultra alta. Folia multa dense fasciculata, setiformis, praeter basin lepidotam subglabra viridisque, sueto via ultra 0,2 m longa, ad 2 mm lata. Scapus tenuis, vaginis omnibus longe filiformi-laminigeris praeditus. Inflorescentia pauciflora, foliis brevior vel ea aequans, raro simplex sueto e apicis 3-6 flabellatis digitatim composita, densa, ad 50 mm longas; bracteis primariis apice longe tenuiterque acuminatis; spicis 3-5-floris, lanceolatis, utrinque acutis, vix ultra 35 mm longis; bracteis florigeris dense imbricatis, erectis, dorso plus minus lepidotis mos glabrescentibus, coriaceis, ovatis, carinatis, haud venosis. Flores stricte erecti, usque ad 28 mm longi; sepalis liberis, glabris, coriaceis, 10-12 mm longis, lanceolatis, acutis. Petala violacea, tubulose erecta, quam stamina paullo breviora. Vereinigte Staaten von Nordamerika Florida (Cabanis, Curtiss n. 2848, 5055, Garber, Harper n. 1509, Michaux; Nash n. 774, 1499, 1702). -Costarica: auf dem Chiriqui (Pfau).-Antillen: Cuba (Curtiss W. Ind. n. 355, Eggers n. 4692, Ekman n. 528, Gibollet n. 50, 54, Guthnick n. 59, Poeppig, Rugel n. 244, Sagra n. 277, Wright n. 683); Jamaica (Sloane, Eggers n. 3699, Houzeau, Wullschlagel n. 1045); Hispaniola.(Eggers n. 1561, 2462, Prenleloup n. 594, Poiteau, Turckheim n. 2838, Paul von Wurttemberg n. 154, 244); Portorico (Bertero, Sintenis n. 6411, Stahl n. 288). -Venezuela: bei Tovar (Fendler). -Brasilien: Hylaea, bei Parah (Poeppig).

26. T. bromoides Mez in Fedde, Rep. XII. (1913) 419. –
Caespitosa, ad 0,26 m alta. Folia multa fasciculata, subuliformia, ad 0,18 m longa et 1,5 mm crassa, rigida, dense valdeque appresse lepidota, ad vaginas dorso transverse cinereo- et ferrugineo-fasciata cet. canoviridia. Scapus gracilis, stricte erectus, folia subaequans, dense vaginis internodia superantibus, ex elliptico in laminas normales acuminatim contractis involutus. Inflorescentia folia superans, pauciflora, in stirpe typica e spica terminali sat majore 70 mm longa et 5 mm lata, parum compressa, utrinque persensim acuta anguste lanceolata, folia satis superante et spica laterali minore, quam bractea primaria breviore composita; spicis dense flabellatis, usque ad 10-floris, utraque facie convexiusculis, perangustis, erectis; bracteis florigeris valde sibi incumbentibus, strictissime erectis, prominulo-venosis, apicem versus lepidotis, acutis, paullo carinatis, acutiusculis, ad 17 mm longis, Sepala longe superantibus. Flores stricte erecti; sepalis chartaceis, antico libero posticis ad 5-6 mm connatis, glabris laevibusque, late acutis, ad 12 mm longis. Petala sepalis plus quam duplo longiora, tubulose erecta, staminibus breviora.
Sto. Domingo: Prov. Barahona (Fuertes).
Obs. Tillandsiae junceae Lec. affinis, inflorescentia laxa et imprimis spicis anguste lanceolatis primo intuitu diversa.

L. B. Smith, Phytologia 8: 219. 1962.
TILLANDSIA SETACEA Sw. Fl. Ind. Occ. 1; 593. 1797.
Renealmia recurvata ß . L. Sp. Pl . 287. 1753.
Tillandsia tenuifolia sensu auctt. plur., non L. 1753.
Linnaeus’ original publication of Tillandsia tenuifolia in the first edition of the “Species Plantarum” (p. 286) was based on the references, Van Royen and Plumier. In the second edition in 1762 (p. 440), he omittcd the Plumicr reference and by retaining the Van Royen automatically made it the type. That he added other references is beside the point. Thanks to the kindness of Dr. Lam, I have received from the Rijksherbarium, Lciden, a photograph of Van Royen’s specimen. This proves to be the same as Tillandsia pulchella Hooker and curiously enough already has been so annotated by Mez. Thus the nomenclature of that species must be revised as follows:
Tillandsia foliis lineari-subulatis integerrimis imbricatis, caule oblongo, spica simplici laxa Van Royen, Prodr. Lugdb. 25. 1740.
Tillandsia pulchella Hook. Exot. Fl. 2: pl. 154. 1825.

TILLANDSIA TENUIFOLIA var. DISTICHA (L. B. Smith) L. B. Smith comb. nov.
Tillandsia pulchella var. disticha L. B. Smith, Arquiv. Bot. Estado Sao Paulo nov. ser; 1: 114, pl. 117. 1943

TILLANDSIA TENUIFOLIA var. SAXICOLA (L. B. Smith) L. B. Smith, comb. nov.
Tillandsia pulchella var. saxicola L. B. Smith, Arquiv. Bot. Estado Sao Paulo nov. ser. 1:115, pl. 118. 1943.

Tillandsia pulchella var. surinamensis Mez in Mart. Fl. Bras. 3; pt. 3: 603. 1894.

TILLANDSIA TENUIFOLIA var. VAGINATA (Wawra) L. B. Smith, comb. nov.
Tillandsia pulchra var. vaginata Wawra, Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschr. 30: 224. 1880.

Updated 15/12/17