Tillandsia flexuosa
Click thumbnails for full size, scaled to a new window.

Tillandsia flexuosa
Bob Hudson, Cairns 01/10
Stephen Haines 08/13
Bob Hudson 01/17*
* Bob Hudson 01/17 ... "A pale color compared with the normal one from The Bahamas. I collected this one out of Florida."

Jenny & Steve Brittain 14/11/15
Bruce Dunstan , in habitat
Bruce Dunstan , in habitat
Bruce Dunstan 4/11/17
Jenny & Steve Brittain 07/10/15
Bob Hudson 07/11/17
Jenny & Steve Brittain 09/11/15
Jenny & Steve Brittain 14/11/15 flexuosa_e ... "T. flexuosa - I purchased last year due to it's interesting twisting appearance. It has doubled in size and we just noticed a flower spike this afternoon! Woohoo ??. This plant has dark spots on the underside of the leaves, not stripes?? We look forward to seeing the flowers."
Jenny & Steve Brittain 15/11/15 flexuosa_f ... "Here is a clearer photo taken with a camera. Hopefully will help a little more."
Mark Supple 15/11/15 ... "Very nice plant, looks very green for a T. flexuosa unless I have never seen this one before. The one I had growing for many years was a lot greyer."
Bob Hudson 15/11/15 ... "This one is Tillandsia flexuosa Vivipara"
Derek Butcher 15/11/15 ... "The name vivipara for this species should have disappeared 38 years ago with Smith & Downs work but it is interesting it has persisted for so long. When T. flexuosa var vivipara was described in 1889 it was said to have whiter and more scalier leaves than the type.
We know viviparous offsets, (or is the modern term pseudoviviparous better) can crop up anywhere as we recently saw in Tillandsia tectorum.
T. flexuosa started out in 1788 and can be found in southern Florida, West Indies, Panama, northern South America. It would therefore come in various shapes, sizes and markings. Some would be easier to grow depending on where it was originally collected."
Bob Hudson 15/11/15 ... "Good afternoon Derek. SOOO what is the correct name?????
I have 4 different forms. I have seen these Tillandsias growing in Cuba/Panama. This form always pups on the spike and base.
The other twisted one I have also seen in Florida and collected it. This I have grown for years and never had pups on the spike.
What is the answer is it the same as all the Tillandsia ionantha."
Derek Butcher 15/11/15 ... "I can only suggest you wear your 'Botanical' hat and call it T. flexuosa just as you would with T. usneoides. You could informally use a name that denotes where it comes from etc even though it would be treated as a NN. T. ionantha cultivars are not a good example of defining differences. Nobody has yet written a key."
Derek Butcher 15/11/15 ... "Jenny. Patience. Wait until it flowers, Some 80% of the diagnostic information is in the inflorescence."
Bruce Dunstan 15/11/15 flexuosa_g & _h ... "These were growing on a plumeria sp on a rocky headland on the Pacific Coast of Panama down in Darien Province when we were doing a 4 hour boat ride to get to Cerro Sapo. Images from the boat."
Bruce Dunstan 15/11/15 flexuosa_i ... "this one was growing with what looks like T. fasiculata in Santander, Colombia in a pretty dry region."
Derek Butcher 15/11/15 ... "Bruce. WOW. You certainly see how Mez in 1935 confused it with T. utriculata and Smith in 1977 with T. limbata. History is fun when you remember that botanists had to rely heavily on dried arrangements."
Bruce Dunstan 15/11/15 ... "Yes, and as Chris has pointed out to me, 'plants in the bush don't have labels on them'. At the time I thought he was joking but as I get older and perhaps wiser it was sage advice. Thanks Chris.
For those interested, also growing on the rocky headland was Pitcairnia halophila. I didn't take an image thinking I'd seem more elsewhere but as usual missed the opportunity. Chester tells me he also saw it growing along the Pacific coast in Western Panama close to the Costa Rican border."
Chris Larson 15/11/15 ... "Great to see the shots in the wild – thanks Bruce.
Jen – if I’ve got it right your plant is the green viviparous plant from Tropiflora – at least I’m pretty sure that is where it is from – I grow them at work as they die here at home so I can’t check. This form never gets the banding of the silver ones. I usually have them marked as T. flexuosa “green viviparous” Ex-Tropiflora – though sometimes I get in a hurry and the labelling is shortened. As you may notice I use descriptive terms on my tags more than UD likes – but we all have our styles – and I’m terrible with cv names, and the registering bit.
Interesting comment from UD about some of the old silver T. flexuosas being the “ var vivipara” once upon a time, but not recognized anymore. The viviparous ones in the 80s were all nice and silver from memory & a larger form – though the memory can be tricky – but then they were only annuals here. So I better not use the name “var vivipara” anymore."
Peter Tristram 15/11/15 ... "Just saw this thread. The green flexuosa v vivipara came from Vienna BG. I can't remember parting with any so must be from Chris. The plant looks like one of these. Flowers will tell. Not much point in asking id without actual flowers most of the time."
Bruce Dunstan 4/11/17 flexuosa_j ... "One sourced from up north from the VB Bob Stable doing its thing."
Jenny & Steve Brittain 07/11/17 flexuosa_k ... "Thought this one looks similar to yours and sure does grow well in Brisbane!"
Bob Hudson 7/11/17 flexuosa_l ... "Hi Jenny. This is the same T. flexuosa in Cairns."
Jenny & Steve Brittain 09/11/17 flexuosa_m,n,o,p ... "Here's a few photo's of a greener flexuosa with her offset beside her, (won at last BSQ Christmas Raffle from Peter Tristram), and a darker looking flexuosa from North Qld. All with banding. What are you thinking Chris?"
Chris Larson 9/11/17 ... "From what I understand:
The bright green (under my conditions) viviparous form doesn’t appear similar to the greener one in your photo – I’ve never had spots or banding. Peter & I got them from Tropiflora I think. I don’t think that this is that form.
The foliage does have strong similarities to the form floating around (available) from Collectors Corner, though I would expect that one to be up to double the size of any of the silver forms I have seen. A friend has grown the CC form outside in Melbourne in a tree over this past winter – though he is in the middle of the city, only 1-2 kms as the crow flies from the beach. It dies at mine."
Bruce Dunstan 05/20 "Cuban form"
Bruce Dunstan (Brisbane) ... "From Bob Hudson's stable. This is really the only form of flexuosa apart from the viviparous form that I can grow. All the others succumb to the cold. As low elevation species they don’t have any cold tolerance at my place. I figure Cuba is pretty close to Miami so the Cuban form gets some cool weather in winter."
Bob Hudson (Cairns) ... "Bruce: Yes, a great looking flexuosa. I am pleased you got that one."
Justin Lee (Trentham Vic) ... "Great looking plant Bruce. Is anyone growing this plant further south, I'm wondering how cold tolerant it is? The viviparous form grows here, surprisingly."
Mark Supple (Broadmeadow NSW) ... "My viviparous grow really well here, I now have 12 now. I have Bruce’s form but only one and it doesn’t like the cold, it survived last Winter but I’ve moved it under cover for this one as I’m sure it won’t live through this one."
Peter Tristram (Repton NSW) ... "I bought a couple from Bruce Dunstan, ex Bob Hudson, at the BSQ show. They didn’t miss a beat last winter, without heating at night, when other touchy stuff succumbed. Another form all died. New heater this winter, set to 10c. I’d suggest making sure day temps are well over 20 though, more like 25 in my Till tunnel."
Peter Tristram 02/21 (Cuba)
Bob Hudson 02/21 Bahamas, Cuba(x2), Columbia
Bob Hudson 12/21 Cuban form
Peter Tristram (12/21) ... "Lovely Bob! I have a Cuban flexuosa spiking too but way behind yours. It's a ripper form and quite cold tolerant. The one that bloomed last season didn't self or cross with anything that I tried, particularly hildae – disappointing!"
Bob Hudson (12/21) ... " I just love the T. flexuosa, I have grown lots of seedlings of the Bahama form, I don't know what I am going to do with them as they will not survive down South without some heat."
Rob Bower 02/21 (Bahamas form)
Peter Tristram ... "Bruce Dunstan sold some of these flexuosa at a show a couple of years ago, ex Bob Hudson who might be able to give some history (Cuban trip?). It’s a mighty good form of flexuosa too – cold hardy, lovely pyramidal spike and ripper foliage. All of my other forms struggle in winter here but not this baby. I’m selfing a few flowers but I’m also working some hildae, funckiana, streptophylla, pruinosa and a few others with it. Why not?!
Has anyone else bloomed one?"
Bruce Dunstan ... "I have one at the same flowering stage. I’m selfing furiously as it is such an easy to grow form of flexuosa."
Rob Bower ... "Pics of mine (Bahamas form) attached. It's a very beautiful plant but not nearly as spectacular flower spike as yours. Mine came from Bob Hudson."
Bob Hudson ... "Here are a couple of T. flexuosa.
Left to Right - flexuosa Bahamas, flexuosa Cuba(x2), flexuosa Columbia."
Bob Reilly ... "Great looking plants! Which clones do you think would do OK in Brisbane?"
Bruce Dunstan ... "From my experience Bob, I suggest the Cuba clone and the viviparous form. Both do really well. I’ve killed the Bahamas and Colombian forms and my old place didn’t tend to get too cold."
Bob Reilly ... "Thanks for your advice. Now I know the clones to find, and how to look after them.
I must have one of the cold-sensitive clones. It did not like the winter, and the centre rotted out. But, it is giving me three pups. The trick might be to grow it under the house's eaves, rather than in the shadehouse."
Rob Bower ... "Yep my Bahamas form is not in good shape here on the Sunshine coast."
Bryan Atkins 02/21
Chris Larson 02/21
Bryan Atkins ... "Here is one of my T. flexuosa which is probably looking as good as it’s ever going to look due to our mild winter and wet and warm spring/summer here in Newcastle. This one has viviparous pups whereas my other has none so I’m just assuming that some do and some don’t."
Chris Larson ... "The most prevalent T. flexuosa in Australia are the large viviparous one courtesy of Collectors Corner's imports over the past couple of years. These seem to be the most hardy, and therefore they are getting around more than the other forms.
There are a number of different others around with a lot more "character" (twists in the foliage). These seem to go by locality names - ie Colombia, Suriname, Cuba, etc.
Some of these are viviparous, some are not. Someone told me that the Cuban one is also hardy - but I am not sure if this is so."

Tillandsia flexuosa Swartz, Prod. Veg. Ind. Occ. 56. 1788.
Tillandsia tenuifolia sensu Jacquin, Sel. Stirp. Am. 92, pl. 63. 1763; non Linnaeus, 1762. Based on Jacquin s n (W), Cartagena, Colombia. Specimen now lost, but name adequately typified by description and illustration.
Tillandsia flexuosa ß fasciata Lindley, Bot. Reg. 9: subpi. 749. 1823. Based on Tillandsia tenuifolia sensu Jacquin.
Tiiiandsia aloifolia Hooker. Exot. Fl. 3: .pl. 205. 1827. Type: De Schack in Glasgow Hortus (K, US photo).
Tillandsia patens Willdenow ex Schultes in Roemer & Schultes, Syst. 7(2): 1229. 1830. Type. Caripe, Venezuela, Humboldt & Bonpland s n (B ?, n v). Identification fide Mez.
Tillandsia limbata Schlechtendal, Linnaea 18: 419. 1844. Type. Hacienda de la Laguna, Vera Cruz, Mexico, Schiede s n (n v). Identification fide Mez. now species in own right – see Gardner 1982 and Selbyana(7): 372-4. 1984
Vriesea aloifolia (Hooker) Beer, Bromel. 95. 1857; as "aloefolia."
Vriesea tenuifolia Beer, Bromel. 96. 1857; in part, as to Tillandsia tenuifolia sensu Jacquin, not as to basionym.
Platystachys patens (Willdenow ex Schultes) K. Koch, Ind. Sem. Hort. Berol. "1873" (App.4): 5. 1874; in part, as to basionym.
Tillandsia flexuosa var vivipara Andre, Brom. Andr. 82. 1889. Type. Without exact locality, costal Venezuela, Andre 695 bis (GH).

Desc from S&D p977-80
Plant stemless, 2-15 dm high.
Leaves 10-20 in a dense often sub-bulbous rosette, 2-5 dm long, densely palc-appressed-lepidote, usually marked with broad white transverse stripes, the outer bladeless, squamiform;
Sheaths ovate, very large but passing into the blade without clear distinction;
Blades narrowly triangular, about 25 mm wide, attenuate, then abruptly and pungently acute, stiff, curved.
Scape erect, slender, glabrous; scape-bracts erect, tubular-involute, elliptic, acute or obtuse, appressed-lepidote, at least the upper ones shorter than the internodes.
Inflorescence simple or very laxly bipinnate;
Primary bracts like the upper scape-bracts, much shorter than the sterile bases of the axillary branches;
Branches ascending, to 4 dm long, very laxly flowered;
Rhachis slender, flexuous, sharply angled, glabrous.
Floral bracts spreading with the flowers, elliptic, broadly acute, 2-3 cm long, equaling or shorter than the sepals, about equaling the internodes, ecarinate, chartaceous, prominently nerved, densely or sparsely appressed lepidote;
Pedicels to 7 mm long.
Sepals narrowly elliptic, obtuse, 2-3 cm long, 7 mm wide, free, subchartaceous, prominently nerved, sparsely lepidote or glabrous;
Petals tubular-erect, linear, acute, to 4 cm long, rose or purple or white; see forma alba
Stamens exserted.
Capsule slenderly cylindric, acuminate, to 7 cm long.
Type. Based on Jacquin s n (W), Cartagena, Colombia, as a nomen novum for Tilland¬sia tenuifolia sensu Jacquin.
DISTRIBUTION. Epiphytic, from near sea level to 480 m alt, southern Florida, West Indies, Panama, northern South America.
UNITED STATES. FLORIDA, Palm Beach: 23 Mar 1953, Foster 2818 (US); Lee: Myers, 1900, Hitchcock 346 (GH, US); Collier: Goodland Point, 15 Dec 1891, Simpson 490 (GH, US); Dade: Miami, 1877, Garber 92 (GH, US); Monroe: Big Pine Key, Jun 1891, Simpson 359 (US); 1936, Killip 31661 (US); 31692 (US); 1950, Killip & Swallen 40367 (US); Nov 1950, Killip 40721 (US); 40809 (US); Aug 1954, 44353 (US); Sugar Loaf Key, 17 Mar 1898, Pollard, Collins & Morris 99 (GH, US). PANAMA. CHIRIQUI: San Felix, 29 Aug 1946, Allen 3651 (MO, US). CANAL ZONE: Balboa, 1924, Standley 25499 (US); Fort Kobbe, Oct 1961, Duke 4256 (MO, US); Farfan Beach, Palo Seco, 4 Dec 1966, Burch 63 (MO, US). PANAMA: Bella Vista, 16 Oct 1922, Killip 12042 (US); Punta Paitilla, 7 Dec 1923, Standley 26248 (US); 26262 (US); 26263 (US); 12 Jan 1924, 30794 (US); Panama, Dec 1923, Standley 26838 (US); 27787 (US); 28 Jun 1940, Bartlett & Lasser 16324 (MICH); 4Jul l940, 16391 (MICH); Isla Taboga, Dec 1923, Standley 27967 (US); Ju11938, Woodson, Allen & Seibert 1488 (GH, MO); 16 Jun 1968, Smith 7 (US); Rio Tapia, 1923-24, Standley 28292 (US); Las Sabanas, 21 Jan 1924, Standley 31904 (US); Jun 1932, Zetek 901 (F). DARIEN: El Real, Rio Tuira, 11 Ju11959, Stern et al 895 (US); 30 Jun 1962, Duke 4938 (MO, US). CUBA. ISLA DE PINOS: San Pedro, 1916, Britton & Wilson 14567 (NY, US); Nueva Gerona, Curtiss s n (GH); 15 Apr 1954, Killip 44016 (US). PINAR DEL RIO: Herradura, 18 Sep 1905, Van Hermann 916 (POM); Guane, 25 Nov 1911, Shafer 1 {)515 (NY, US). HABANA: Santiago de las Vegas, 2 Ju11904, Baker & Wilson 609 (POM); 5 Oct 1905, Baker 5094 (POM); Laguna Castellana, 8 Oct 1904, Wilson 4007 (POM); Guanabacoa, 2 Jan 1905, Curtiss 587 (GH, US); Lomas de las Jatas, 14 May 1914, Ekman 878 (S); Lorna de Coca, 18 May 1914, Ekman 1{)13 (S); Morro, 27 May 1914, Ekman 1156 (S). MATANZAS: San Miguel de los Banos, Dec 1931, Killip 13923 (US). LAS VILLAS: Santa Clara, 19 Feb 1923, Ekman 16337 (S); Soledad, Cien¬fuegos, 9 Nov 1928, Jack 6636 (GH, US); 31 Jan 1930, Jack 7616 (BH, US). CAMAGUEY: La Gloria to Columbia, 6 Mar 1909, Shafer 612 (NY, US); Cayo Paloma, 12 Oct 1909, Shafer 2576 (NY, US). ORIENTE: Guantanamo, Mar 1909, Britton 2102 {NV, US); 26 Sep 1914, Ekman 2959 {S); Santiago de Cuba, 21 Oct 1916, Ekman 8012 {GH, S); 24 Aug 1952, Lopez Figueirds 610 {US). BAHAMAS. Andros, 27 Feb 1966, Dawson 26511 {US); Mar 1966, 26753 {US); 26928 {US); Crooked Island, Jan 1906, Brace 4789 {NV, US). JAMAICA. MIDDLESEX, St. Catharine: Riverhead, 29 Jan 1954, Proctor 8370 {IJ, US). CORNWALL, Trelawny: Good Hope, 27 Aug 1956, Proctor 15715 {IJ, US). WITHOUT EXACT LOCALITY: Shakespear s n {BM, probably used by Swartz in describing Tillandsia flexuosa); Jul 1844, Purdie s n {K); Harris 5671 {IJ). CAYMAN ISLANDS: Grande Cayman, 15 Apr 1956, Proctor 15005 {IJ, US); Cayman Brac, 26 May 1938, King CB-32 {BM). CAICOS ISLANDS: North Caicos, Kew, 29 Jun 1954, Proctor 9050 {IJ, US); South Caicos, 27 Jun 1954, Proctor 8990 {IJ, US). HAITI: P1aine Cu1-de¬Sac, 15 Oct 1924, Ekman H-2155 {S, US); St. Michel de l'Atalaye, Nord, 20 Nov 1925, Leonard 7306 {US); La Vallee, Tortue Island, 3 Jan 1929, Leonard 11530 {US); Cabaret, Baie des Moustiques, 13 Jan 1929, Leonard 11886 {GH, US). REPUBLICA DOMINICANA. PUERTO PLATA: Estero Hondo, Jimenez 2792 {US). MONTE CRISTI: Rio Vaque del Norte, Oct 1946, Howard 9610 {GH, US). PUERTO RICO. Santurce, 25 May 1899, Heller 1394 {NV, US). WINDWARD ISLANDS. GRENADA: Grande Ance, Dec 1889, Eggers 6465 {US). BONAIRE: Boldingh 723B {U). CURACAO: Feb 1917, Curran & Haman 112 {GH); 171 {GH, US); 172 {GH); Arnaldo 5 {U); Boldingh 4939 {U); 5010 {U); 5053 {U); 5525 {U); 6448 {U); Suringar 1 {U). ARUBA: Arnaldo 297 {U). COLOMBIA. MAGDALENA: Santa Marta, 1898-1901, Smith 2347 {F, GH, PH, US); Jun 1906, Pittier 1608 {US); 5 Apr 1927, Killip & Smith 21098 {GH, US); 29 Jul 1946, Foster & Smith 1327 {GH); Aug 1946, 1441 {GH, US); La Jagua, 8 Sep 1924, Allen 617 {MO); San Juan de Cesar, 12 Jun 1944, Haught 4198 {F, GH, US). ATLANTICO: Puerto Columbia, Ju11928, Elias 536 {US); Barranquilla, Jul 1932, Elias 786 {GH); Sabanilla, 28 Aug 1932, Dugand 88 {F); El Palmar, 1937 , Elias 1570 {F); Palmar de Varela to Ponedera, Aug 1943, Dugand & Jaramillo 3469 {COL, US); Rio Magdalena, 12 Ju11946, Foster & Smith 1263 {GH). BOLIVAR: Island of Mompos, Lands of Loba, 1916, Curran s n {US); Cartagena, 1920, Heriberto 355 {US); Tierrabomba Island, Cartagena Bay, 4 Nov 1926, Killip & Smith 14118 {GH); Turbaco, Nov 1926, Killip & Smith 14222 {GH, US); 14261 {GH, US); Arjona, 15 Nov 1926, Killip & Smith 14529 {GH, US). CORDOBA: El Sinu, Monteria, 7 Jan 1949, Zainum, Araque & Barkley 19-Bo-089 {US). NORTE DE SANTANDER: Cucuta, Feb 1941, Carvajalino & Diaz 35 {COL). CUNDINAMARCA: Tocaima, Dec 1932, Arbelaez 2099 {US); El Paso, Girardot to Melgar, 7 Aug 1939, Arbelaez & Cuatrecasas 6558 {US); Apulo, Anapoima, 4 May 1944, Killip, Dugand & Jaramillo 38159 {US). TOLIMA: Caracoli, Rio Magdalena, 12 Dec 1875, Andre 695 {F); Flandes, 14 Dec 1946, Schneider 226 {COL); Ibague, 1 Aug 1952, Koie 5139 {C). HUILA: Quebrada de Angeles to Rio Cabrera, 25 Jul1917 , Rusby & Pennell 321 {US); Villavieja to Baraya, 4 Ju11950, Smith 1138 {US). VAUPES: Vapoboda, 1°20' N, 70°30' W, Apr 1953, Schultes & Cabrera 20036 {COL, US); 25 Jun 1958, Garcia Barriga, Schultes & Blohm 17838 {US). VENEZUELA. NUEVA ESPARTA: Isla Coche, 1903, Johnston 15 {GH); Los Frailes, Dec 1951, Gines 2828 {US); Guetamare, Dec 1951, Gines 2837 {US). SUCRE: Cristobal Colon, 1923, Broadway 27 {GH, US); 603 -(GH, US); Paria Peninsula, Pittendrigh 1207 {US); Patos Island, 5 Mar 1958, Aitken & Downs s n {US); Hierro, 24 Ju11962, Steyermark & Agostini 91308 {US, VEN). ANZOATEGUI: Guanta, 1 Jul 1917, Curran & Haman 1220 {GH). DISTRITO FEDERAL: La Guaira, 9 Aug 1900, Robinson & Lyon s n {US); Hacienda Puerto La Cruz, Coastal Range, 4 Sep 1918, Pittier 8100 {US, VEN); Cerro La Casquilla, km 27 Caracas to La Guaira, 20 Jan 1947, Lasser 2289 {VEN); Naiguata, 3 Nov 1963, Steyermark 91933 {US, VEN). ARAGUA: Maracay, 1934, Vogl 1069 {M); 1073 {M); 4 Sep 1963, Montaldo 3645 {VEN); Choroni, 1938, Vog1 A-39 {M); Cansa Macho, Rancho Grande, 17 Oct I95I, Foster2763 {US). CARABOBO: El Palito to Puerto Cabello, 26 Dec 1891, Warming 513 {C); 24 Jun 1917, Curran & Haman 1133 {GH); 5 Jan 1939, Alston 6098 {BM); 6 Apr 1950, Fernandez 712 {VEN); 16 Nov 1957, Trujillo 3870 {VEN); San Joaquin, Jul 1918, Pittier 7926 {GH, US); Cabo Blanco {?), 1917, Curran & Haman 933 {GH); 950 {GH); Las Trincheras to Puerto Cabello, 27 Dec 1938, Alston 5718 {BM); Patanemo to Puerto Cabello, 19 Oct 1962, Trujillo 5360 {VEN). FALCON: Paraguana, Dec 1953, Lasser & Aristeguieta 3352 {VEN); 77 km south of Coro, 25 Jan 1966, Steyermark & Braun 94725 {VEN). LARA: Siquesique, 2 Sep 1959, Trujillo 4773 {VEN); El Eneal, Tamaca to Cordero, 28 Ju11963, Fernandez 365 {VEN). ZULIA: Rio Vasa, Machiques, 24 Aug 1967, Steyermark & Fernandez 99641 {VEN); 99730-A {VEN). MERIDA: Merida, Jan 1950, Marcuzzi s n {US); Rio Chama, Estanquez to Puente Real, Sep 1966, Steyermark 97032 {VEN). TACHlRA: San Antonio, 8 Aug 1950, Cardona 4234 {VEN). BOLIVAR: Ciudad Bolivar, 1921, Bailey 1536 {BH); Las Nieves to Cerro Pechacho, Feb 1961, Steyermark 89294 {NV, US, VEN). AMAZONAS: Esmeralda, 18 Oct 1928, Tate 228 {NV); 15 May 1942, Williams 15402 {US); Puerto Ayacucho, 23 May 1940, Williams 13092 {US); Jun 1940, 13482 {VEN); 25 Jun 1942, 15881 {US); 11 Sep 1944, Steyermark 58526 {F, GH); Rio Orinoco opposite Rio Atabapo, 4 Aug 1959, Wurdack & Adderley 43752 {NV, US). TRINIDAD. Gasparee, 1861, Herb. Trin. 846 {TRIN); San Fernando, 1873, Herb. Trin. 2011 {TRIN); Port of Spain, 1906, Hart s n {TRIN); 1930, Broadway s n {GH); Erin, 1915, Broadway 7337 {TRIN); Icacos, St. Quinton, 1915, Broadway 7372 {TRIN); L'Islet, Chatham, 1916, Broadway 8649 {TRIN); Chacachacare, 1921, Broadway 10571 {TRIN); 18 Mar 1956, Aitken s n {US); Patos, 1921, Broadway s n {TRIN); Aitken s n {TRIN); Cedros, Pittendrigh 41 {US); Gaspar Grande, 1944, Pittendrigh 1180 {US); Princes Town, Downs s n {TRIN); Toco, 3 Jul 1955, Aitken & Downs s n (US); Maraval. Simmons 194 (TRIN); Purseglove 6167 (TRIN); Huevos Island, 19 Ju11959, Aitken s n (US). TOBAGO. Concordia. Oct 1889, Eggers 5667 (GH, US); Calder Hall, 4 Feb 1914, Broadway 4746 (US); Charlotteville, 18 Jul 1955, Aitken s n (US); Barbados Bay, 1 Aug 1957, Aitken s n (US); Mason Hall, Aitken s n (TR1N); Little Tobago Island. 3 Aug 1963, Aitken 5 n (US); Pigeon Point Swamp, 16 Nov 1965, Aitken s n (US). GUYANA. DEMERARA: Hooroobea and Lama, 1887, Jenman 3827 (BRG). ESSEQUIBO: Bartica, 1922, Cruz 2026 (GH, NY. US). SURINAME. Paramaribo, Wullschlaegel 509 (BR); Mar 1838, Splitgerber 610 (L); s d. Kegel 436 (GOET); 1048 (GOET); Kramer & Hekking 2128 (U); 2628 (U); Misikai. upper Suriname River, Tresling 130 (U); upper Coppename River, Saramacca, 10 Sep 1961,Hekking999 (U). FRENCH GUIANA. ? 1961, Schnell 11434 (P).

Tillandsia flexuosa Swartz forma alba H. Takizawa, Journ. Brom. Soc. 53(2):54-5. 2003.
TYPE: Costa Rica. Puntarenas: Epiphyte on mangrove forest of peninsula de Osa, GPS coordinates 08°32.40'N, 83°17.97'W, sea level, 14. Sep. 1999, Hiroyuki Takizawa, Dennis Cathcart & Chester Skotak TH990914f (Holotype: SEL).
A typo differt characteribus sequentibus: inflorescentia alba, scapus albus, bracteis, sepalis, petalis et staminibus alvissimis, pistillo albo et pollinibus flavis.

Plant stemless, flowering 5-8 dm high.
Leaves 10-20, in a dense subbulbous rosette, 2-5 dm long, densely pale-appressed, lepidote, usually marked with broad white transverse stripes, the outer bladeless, squamiform, shorter than the inflorescence.
Leaf sheaths ovate, very large but passing into the blade without clear distinction.
Leaf blades narrowly triangular, ca. 25 mm wide, attenuate, then abruptly and pungently acute, stiff, curved.
Scape erect, slender, glabrous.
Scape bracts erect, tubular-involute, elliptic, acute, appressed lepidote, at least the upper ones shorter than the internodes.
Inflorescence simple, 5-11 very laxly flowered, whitish-yellow.
Floral bracts spreading with the flowers, elliptic, broadly acute, 3 cm long, 1 cm wide, equaling or shorter than the sepals, about equaling the internodes, ecarinate, chartaceous, prominently nerved, sparsely appressed-lepidote, whitish-yellow.
Flowers pedicellate 5-7 mm, opening during the day.
Sepals narrowly elliptic, acute, ca. 2 cm long, 7 mm wide, free, subchartaceous, prominently nerved, sparsely lepidote or glabrous, whitish-yellow.
Corolla tubular.
Petals linear, acute, 38 mm long, pure white.
Stamens 3 of 40 mm long and 3 of 45 mm long, exserted, pollen grains yellow.
Style 40 mm long, exserted.

Overall, the floral characteristics of this new form lie within the normal size range of the type of Tillandsia flexuosa. When in bloom, however, this new form has an unmistakable bright yellow inflorescence and pure white flower. It is rare among plants of this type.
Habitat: The plant grows in a very bright beach area of Gulfo Dulce where mangroves make a small forest. The plant has ants nesting in its pseudobulb and other insects were living nearby.

Detail from Gouda in Flora of the Guianas 1987
11.Tillandsia flexuosa Swartz,Prod. Veg. Ind. Occ. 56. 1788; as a nom. nov. for Tillandsia tenuifolia sensu Jacquin, Set. Stirp. Am. 92: pl. 63. 1763; non Linnaeus, 1762. - Vriesea tenuifolia Beer, Bromel. 96. 1857; in part, as to Tillandsia tenuifolia sensu Jacquin, not as to type. Type: Colombia, Cartagena, Jacquin s. n. (W). Specimen now lost, but name adequately typified by description and illustration. - Plate 12.
Tillandsia flexuosa Swartz a fasciata Lindley, Bot. Reg. 9: sub pl. 749. 1823. Based on Tillandsia tenuifolia sensu Jacquin.
Tillandsia aloifolia Hooker, Exot. Fl. 3: pl. 205. 1827. - Vriesea aloifolia (Hooker) Beer, Bromel. 95. 1857; as "aloefolia". Type: De Schach in Glasgow Hortus (K, US photo).

Plant acaulescent, flowering 50-95 cm long, with a 20-35 cm tall flexuous-tubular or narrowly funnelform rosette, of 10-20, often twisting and transversely white-banded, leaves, sometimes with offset on the scape of the inflorescence.
Leaves stiff-coriaceous, 20-40 cm long, normally shorter than the scape, the outer ones reduced and bladeless, densely appressed-lepidote, usually with transverse bands of extended spreading scales outside;
sheaths large, but not very distinct, evenly merging into the blades, ovate, inflated, 5-9 x 2.5-5 cm, often deep purple at the (membranaceous) margins;
blades arching and often twisting in one direction, very narrowly triangular, becoming involute toward the apex when dry, 20-30 x 1.8-3.5 cm, attenuate, then (abruptly) pungent.
Inflorescence simple or laxly bipinnate of 2-6 distichously arranged branches, 45-88 cm long;
scape erect, 23-50 cm long, 2-4 mm in diam., almost entirely glabrous, dark green, for most part covered by bracts;
scape bracts erect, chartaceous, elliptic, the lower ones imbricate and with foliaceous blades, the upper ones more apiculate or subacute and somewhat shorter than the internodes, densely appressed-lepidote;
axis elongate, wholly exposed, flexuous, at least toward the apex, sharply angled (when dry), for most part glabrous or sparsely lepidote;
primary bracts like the upper scape bracts, clasping the branches, much shorter than the peduncle;
peduncle 6-10 cm long, sparsely lepidote at one side, with one or two remote bracts;
racemes spreading, often ascending, elongated, 8-25 cm long, very laxly and distichously 3-10-flowered, with one sterile bract at the apex;
rachis entirely visible, slender, flexuous, sharply angled, subglabrous;
floral bracts spreading, clasping the flower, chartaceous, with prominently veined surface (when dry), elliptic, 2-3 cm long, about equaling the internodes, much exceeded by the sepals, membranaceous at the margins, broadly acute or rounded and obscurely apiculate, ecarinate, appressed-lepidote.
Flowers spreading, distinctly pedicellate (to 1 cm long);
sepals subchartaceous, with prominently veined surface when dry, narrowly elliptic, 2-3 cm long, obtuse, free, ecarinate, sparsely lepidote or glabrous;
petals erect, divergent or coiled at the apex, to 4 cm long, acute, purple-rose (or white?);
stamens exserted, unequal, exceeded by the pistil (at least the 3 shorter ones), filaments straight, flat, except at the apex, anthers dorsifixed (at 2/5), ca. 3 mm long;
ovary ovoid, ca. 5 mm long, style slender, stigmas linear (bristle-like).
Capsule slenderly cylindric, to 7 cm long, 2-3 times as long as the floral bracts, evenly tapering toward the apex, then abruptly short-beaked.
Distribution: S. Florida, West Indies, Panama, N. South America. Epiphytic, from near sea level to 1200 m alt. 23 collections studied (7-GU, 6-SU, 7-FG).
Culture and use: A very decorative species that can be grown like an epiphyte in window at a bright and sunny location, or a dry location in greenhouse, it demands little watering, and can be propagated by seed on vertical gauze.

Updated 07/03/21