Tillandsia confinis
Click thumbnails for full size, scaled to a new window.

Tillandsia confinis
Species, Ecuador.
See notes attached regarding confertiflora, confinis, dudleyi, and others.
Note also, confinis minor is treated as a synonym of confertiflora.
Bruce Dunstan 10/11.
Chris Larson 05/12.
Bruce Dunstan ... "Here are a couple that were ID’d as T. confinis in habitat. The first was growing below Machu Pichu in Peru and the second between Papallacta and Tena in Eastern Slope Ecuador. Sadly both post floral."

From Tillandsia discussion group...
Len Colgan 7/10/11
See T. confinis_1, T. confinis_2, T. confinis_3
At long last, one of the tillandsias I collected in Ecuador is flowering. When I collected it, I thought it was a large form of T. confinis var minor, but now I wonder if it is the straight species T. confinis.
The bracts are of an attractive orange colour in reality. Can anyone be specific on its identification?

Bruce Dunstan 07/10/11
See 300.jpg
Subject: T.confinis Whatever it is it is a nice plant.
When it gets well on in maturity compare to this which was ID'd as confinis, note the seed capsules.

Derek Butcher 07/10/11
Don't forget that
1. confinis minor is treated as a synonym of confertiflora
2. confinis petals are white
3. confertiflora petals are whitish to blue
4. Smith tells us that if the lower primary bracts exceed the branch then think confertiflora
5. Butcher's key shows them in different sections

Peter Tristram 07/10/11
My gut instinct is T confertiflora. It is certainly in the confinis fold anyway.

Len Colgan 07/10/11
Attached confertiflora, confertiflora infl, DSCN8791
Thank you Derek et al.
Now I am really confused.
I showed the plant in the first two attached pictures some time ago. I thought it was T. confertiflora, which was the name given to me by my travelling companion. It is quite a different plant, especially in the foliage, to the one which is now in flower (which I had just circulated), and came from a different part of Ecuador. Also, the inflorescences seem to be different enough to query that they are the same species.
The foliage of the plant now flowering seems to match exactly the picture at the bottom of page 14 in Hiroyuki's book. The first two images attached to this email have somwhat different foliage.
Derek's information indicates this current flowering plant should be T. confertiflora, which means that the picture in Hiroyuki's book might be correctly named if T. confinis minor is synonymous with T. confertiflora.
Now, to add to the confusion, please look at the third attached image. This is a plant in habitat precisely where I collected the plant in the first two attached pictures. The leaves are identical, despite the disparities in the inflorescence, which I attributed to my growing conditions. As you can see, the foliage is very different to my plant currently in flower and the plant in Hiroyuki's book.
This opens up the issue: what is the plant in the attached pictures? Is it possible it is also T. confertiflora? Have I missed totally any T. confinis in my travels?

David Sheumack 07/10/11
Attached coinaensis clump
The first two pics look somewhat similar to what I thought was confertiflora but was pronounced as coinanensis by the group some months back.

Derek Butcher 07/10/11
See notes at end of this page - T. confertiflora.doc and T. confinis.doc
But your latest offering still has primary bracts that exceed the lower branches and petals are still blue. If you are still dithering then compare the bits of your plant with the bits from the description. That is what Renate would do. While comparing photos from other sources is OK there are also dangers in duplicating an error. While Hiroyuki's book is fairly accurate, there are some mistakes there. I know that some of you claim to be able to identify a plant just from the leaves but I follow the taxonomist rule that identity is based only 20% on the plant and 80% on the sex bits.

Derek Butcher 07/10/11
Attached: T.coinaensis notes.doc
Dr Dave: Now you will confuse Len. Your plant leads to Pam Koide and she said Harry Luther said. I was all for calling the plant 'Silver Coin' which could be tossed up and you had two options! The final decision not to use a cultivar name was based on the fact that Pam would still sell her plant as coinaensis even though we grew it as 'Silver Coin' here in OZ.

Peter Tristram 09/10/11
I agree that there are so many ‘forms’ of confertiflora but no confinis around. I have had the species a few times, from Peru and Ecuador ex Hase and others and it always has died. They all looked quite like Bruce’s plant. confertiflora always lives and always has a decurved spike. I have at least 5 ‘forms’ of it and there are others I’ve seen, varying from small, compact plants, like we had posted on Tillnuts a while back, to quite large plants with very large inflorescences. Most I obtained in Germany and I got a few more this trip. I have a couple blooming so will post a few pics. Len, your confusion is probably like trying to put names on so many of the Andean Tills – they never quite fit. No wonder Jose’s book is still in progress!

Derek Butcher 06/01/12
Tillandsia dudleyi now T. confinis
Those who get the American journal will know that T. dudleyi is now treated as a synonym of T. confinis. Some of you are growing plants with T. dudleyi on the label but remember that the jury is still out deciding whether these are more related to T. huarazensis OR!

Chris Larson 07/01/12
Re: Tillandsia dudleyi now T. confinis
As Walter advised Peter of on Brom-L, T.cajamarcensis should be looked at as well in this group.

Derek Butcher 07/01/12
Re: Tillandsia dudleyi now T. confinis
But then Walter could be playing the devil's advocate >:-} The only taxonomist who has identified this taxon has been Werner Rauh. There are no herbarium specimens recorded at WU (Walter's domain!). The DVD has yet to get ONE coloured photo so we can start our usual discussion!

Chris Larson 07/01/12
Re: Tillandsia dudleyi now T. confinis
The trick then is to see if Peter has checked the parts against the description, and see if your colour photo for the disc (the one Peter placed on Brom-L) is legit. It was a while ago - so the flowers have probably come & gone, and he probably checked.
Mick R has a stack of different clones of "dudleyi" - which looked different to what we have. I also have a few - ex-Knize - some finally coming into flower - incl one that "looks different".

Derek Butcher 08/01/12
Re: Tillandsia dudleyi now T. confinis
Mark: Now you have to compare your findings with the description of T. confinis and let us know where it does not fit OR if it does fit >:-}
To think that this indecision would have been avoided if we had given a cultivar name to Mick's plants based on where he found them rather than trying to play taxonomist. Photos that I have called 'Romanowski' are currently under T. confinis.

Mark Supple 11/01/12
Re: Tillandsia dudleyi now T. confinis
I pulled apart a plant I got from Mick Romanowski some time back that he collected in Peru and it seemed to match T.dudleyi, I saw the article and Gordon and myself talked about it yesterday.

Peter Tristram 10/01/12
I'll look for the scans from a few yrs ago. Eric and I have discussing this group for a while and his trip to Peru seems to be solving some issues (and will certainly create some more!).
My feeling is that Walter is spot-on (T. cajamarcensis), esp given the dry habitat as opposed to where the real dudleyi (confinis) grows.
Florally it matches well even though the type appears to be depauperate. I guess lots of the Peruvian plants can match a variety of species though.
I have this plant from a few sources, ex Pam, Knize on many occasions and Mick and saw it in Germany from other collections and all are variations on a theme, all from the Cajamarca area. There are others though, including the vaguely similar plant from further south near Huaraz that matches T. huarazensis fairly well (and cajamarcensis), that don't match as well.
PS. There's a town called Llacanora near the limestone bluffs where I gather Mick found his specimens. The non-furry tectorum lives there too, as well as a TV, probably TV harmsiana and some others. Good stand of Tassie Blue Gums too. Lotte and Pam (and KK) also know this ridge well.

Derek Butcher 14/01/12
Re: Tillandsia dudleyi now T. confinis
Can I be a Grump too? Surely we can get intrepid Aussie explorers in the future to be a bit more definitive if they intend to sell some of the plants that survive quarantine. It this case it has a vague name like the plant that Mick collected that he calls T. dudleyi that isn't. To think that we have only got some sort of record for Len Colgan's trip to Bolivia in 1992. NOTHING ELSE to refer to.
If these intrepid explorers are reluctant to give number codes to their collections then surely we can convince them to give Place names to their plants and as information comes to hand this can be recorded. For example a name of 'Llacanora' is a bit more definitive than what we have at the moment.
Comments from future intrepid explorers, please.
I am not that worried about those who just import from overseas without worrying about what is on the label. If it is Germany we do have sources of enquiry although there is a problem with the USA but that is something we have to live with, and just ask questions.

Derek Butcher 16/01/12
Re: Tillandsia dudleyi now T. confinis
After talking to Mick I have decided to call the plants that appear in my DVD and that come from this area as Rom 26 Llanacanora, so that in the future we will know what we are talking about.
Apparently, plants were collected between 2655 and 3656m so there would be difference in the actual plant's growth and when not flowering there are certain challenges as to identity.

Peter Tristram 16/01/12
Re: Tillandsia dudleyi now T. confinis
Fair enough for those from Mick, but there are many other plants within a range of the same look, from Pam and KK especially (kinda like bigger, less caulescent huarazensis - another problematic name...). Pam says she collected in that area and no doubt KK (and Paul I and Dennis C). Also note spelling is Llacanora.
I have an old spike I'll have a look at for comparison with cajamarcensis before I hit the road again.

Derek Butcher 17/01/12
Re: Tillandsia dudleyi now T. confinis
Thanks for spelling correction. I assume the first 'L' is silent as in Llama.
I agree there are many plants out there where we know even less about collection data. This makes our job so much harder than the taxonomist as we strive to get some order into our identification of live material.
Len Colgan 17/01/12
Re: Tillandsia dudleyi now T. confinis
Interesting. In South America, if a word begins with "Ll" (double L), they tend to pronounce it as "Y". For example, Llama is pronounced as "Yama". I wonder whether or not Llacanora is pronounced "Yacanora".

Chris Larson 28/05/12
Attached: confinis0004 1
Another T.confinis. This time a form from J.Kent.

Tillandsia confertiflora Andre, Enum. Bromel. 7. 13 Dec 1888; Revue Hort. 60: 567. 16 Dec 1888. .
Tillandsia confinis var. minor Rutschmann & Rauh Trop. Subtrop. Pflanzenwelt 65:47-9 1988 treated as a synonym in Binomial listing 6. 1998
Desc from S&D p784
Plant stemless, flowering 3-5 dm high.
Leaves utriculate-rosulate, 3-4 dm long;
Sheaths distinct, elliptic, covered with very closely appressed brown-centered scales, dark purple;
Blades narrowly triangular, caudate-attenuate, 3-4 cm wide, flat, densely cinereous-lepidote beneath, more or less glabrescent and green above.
Scape curved, equaling the leaves or shorter, glabrous;
Scape-bracts densely imbricate, lanceolate with foliaceous blades, the upper bright red.
Inflorescence very densely bipinnate, ellipsoid, 10-15 cm long, 7 cm in diameter;
Primary bracts triangular-ovate, bright red, the lower ones equaling or exceeding the spikes, the lower and median subfoliaceous-laminate;
Spikes suberect, subsessile, ovate-elliptic, subacute, 35-45 mm long, 20 mm wide, complanate, 10-14-flowered.
Floral bracts very densely imbricate and concealing the rhachis, ovate, acute, to 25 mm long, 15 mm wide, exceeding the sepals, sharply carinate, coriaceous, even, glabrous, lustrous;
Flowers subsessile.
Sepals lanceolate, acute, 16-20 mm long, about half-connate posteriorly, chartaceous, glabrous;
Petal-blades elliptic, 5 mm long, yellowish white to blue violet;
Stamens and pistil included.
Capsule slightly exceeding the bract.
Type. Andre 4475 his (holotype K, GH photo), without exact locality, Andes of Central Ecuador, 1876. Holotype not at Kew – DB!
DISTRIBUTION. Epiphytic, 1200-2500 m alt, Ecuador, northern Peru.
ECUADOR. LOJA: Chinchanga, Poortman 478 (P); El Almendral, Catacocha, 16 Apr 1944, Acosta Solis 7895 (F). PERU. PIURA: Cambaque, Olmos Valley, Rauh P-308 (US)

Tillandsia confinis L. B. SMITH var. minor J. Rutschmann et Rauh , Trop Subtrop. Pflanz.65: 47-49. 1988 treated as a synonym in Binomial listing 6. 1998
A typo var. confinis differt habitu minore, vaginibus multo minoribus, laminis mollissimis, inflorescentiis minoribus et petalis atroviolaceis.
Holotypus: B.G.H. 68537, leg. Dr. J. Rutschmann (Basel), s.n., in herb. inst. bot. system. univ. heidelb. (HEID).
Patria et distributio: epiphytica in arboribus generis Coffeae vetustis apud 1000 m.s.m., inter Loja et Machala, Aequatoria meridionalis.
Differs from the type var. confinis by the smaller growth, the much smaller sheaths, the very soft blades, the smaller inflorescence and the dark-violet petals.
Holotype: B.G.H. 68537, leg. Dr.J. Rutschmann (Basel), o. Nr., im (HEID). Habitat and range; Epiphytic on coffee trees near 1000 m, between Loja and Machala, south Ecuador.

Plant growing in groups, stemless, flowering to 30 cm high.
Leaves numerous, forming a funnel-rosette to 20 cm high and 15 cm wide.
Sheath ± distinct, long-oval, to 3-4,5 cm high and 2-2,5 cm wide, bleached, occasionally upper side somewhat violet, on both sides appressed scattered lepidote, therefore appearing green.
Blades very soft, narrow-triangular, above the sheath 1,5 cm wide, 13-15 cm long, long-attenuate, bent over in the upper part, upper side lax, underneath densely scaled; scales with brown centre.
Inflorescence bipinnate, erect to slightly bent over.
Scape thin, 3 mm thick, greenish reddish. glabrous.
Scape bracts: the basal ones subfoliate, the upper ones with long, vermilion sheath and green bent over blade.
Inflorescence to 12 cm long, 8 cm wide, with 4-7 spreading spikes.
Primary bracts: the basal ones similar to the upper scape bracts, the upper ones wide-oval, long acuminate, pale carmine red, upper side scattered appressed lepidote, underneath glabrous, only lepidote towards the tip, shorter than the spike;
Spikes with short stem and sloping peduncle bract, longish-lanceolate, 4-5 cm long, 1 cm wide, acuminate, complanate, 6 to 10- flowered.
Inflorescence rhachis angular, glabrous, straight, reddish green.
Spike rhachis green, flattened on the side, glabrous, at anthesis not visible.
Floral bracts densely imbricate, carinate, longish oval, acuminate, 1.5 cm long, 0.8 cm wide, green, smooth, glabrous, only at the tip weakly lepidote, partly waxy scurf, longer than the sepals;
Sepals narrow lanceolate, the posterior pair carinate, ? connate, bleached geeen, 14 mm lang. Petals narrow tongue shaped, acuminate, dark-violet, with short bent over platte, the bottom white.
Stamens and Style enclosed, Filament plicate, stigma spreading, white, papillose.

T. confertiflora Ed. Andre, Enum. Bromel. 7. 13 Dec 1888.
Folia radicalia plana, ad basin Iate dilatatam amplectentia, lanceolata, ad apicem setacea, striata, presertim pagina inferiore copiose lepidota. Scapus 30 cent. altus, foliis bractealius crebris, imbricatis, lanceolato-setaceis, foliis radicalibus subsimilibus, Panicula densissima, spicis circ.12 ad partem superiorem scapi confertis, Bracteae primariae glabrae: inferiores lanceolatae, spicis apice
longe setaceis longiores, summae breviores, ovato-acuminatae, Spicae distichae, densissimae, compressae, ovatae, 3-4 cent. longae, 12-14-florae. Bracteae florales ovatae, acutissimae, 18 mill, longae, valde carinatae, glabrae. Flores arcuati. Sepala oblonga, acutissima, carinata, bracteam subaequantia: duo ultra medium coalita, tertium liberum. Flores luteo-albidi. Capsula arcuata, bracteam paulo superans.
Basal leaves flat, widely dilated, clasping, lanceolate and ending in a bristly point, striped, grayish, very abundantly covered with scales especially above.
Scape 30 cm tall, covered with numerous overlapping, lanceolate-bristly, bract-like leaves looking like the basal leaves.
Panicle very dense, formed of about 12 spikes, gathered at the top of the scape.
Primary bracts glabrous; the lower lanceolate and ending in a long point, overtopping the spike; the upper shorter and ovate-acuminate.
Spikes in two rows, very dense, flat, ovate, 3 - 4 cm long, composed of 12-14 flowers.
Floral bracts ovate and very sharply pointed, 18 mm long, strongly keeled, glabrous. Flowers arched.
Sepals oblong, very acute, keeled and about as long as the bract; one is free to the base, two are fused up to the middle.
Flowers whitish-yellow.
Capsule arched, slightly longer than the bract.

Epiphytic in the central Ecuadorian Andes at 2500 to 3000 m altitude. (Andre's Herbarium, no. 4475 bis.)

T. rubella Baker, collected by Mandon at Sorata, Bolivia, and having an inflorescence resembling that of the above species, is distinguished from it by several characteristics, especially by the short, soft leaves without scales, pale green but red at the tip, etc.

From Baker 1889
90. T. CONFERTIFLORA Andre Enum.7.
Root-leaves lanceolate-acuminate, densely lepidote- beneath.
Stem a foot long;
bract-leaves lanceolate-setaceous, imbricated.
Panicle very dense, formed of about a dozen dense distichous 12-14-flowered spikes 1- 1 ½ in. long;
lower branch-bracts lanceolate-setaceous, longer than the spikes;
flower-bracts ovate, acute, 5/8 in. long.
Sepals oblong, very acute.
Petals yellowish-white.
capsule arcuate, rather longer than the bract.

Hab. Andes of Central Ecuador, Andre 4475, bis.

From Mez 1935
250. T. confertiflora Andre in Rev. Hortic. LX. (1888) 567 et Bromel. Andr. (1889) 90, t. 26, fig. A.
- 0,3-0,4 m alta. Folia haud bulboso-rosulata, ad 0,3 m longa, super vaginas ad 30 mm lata, inde in apicem peracutum sensim angustata, praesertim subtus copiose lepidota. Scapus erectus, folia aequans vel iis brevior, dense vaginis lanceolatis, imbricatis, internodia superantibus indutus. Inflorescentia compacte 2-pinnatim panniculata, submulti- vel multiflora, densissima, ad 0,1 m longa et 70 mm diam. metiens, ellipsoidea; spicis suberectis, flabellatis, 12-14-floris, subsessilibus, ovato-ellipticis, parum complanatis, utraque facie fere convexiusculis, apice subacutis, ad 35 mm longis et 20 mm latis; bracteis primariis inferioribus mediisque sueto in laminam brevem productis, his saltem spicas axillares bene superantibus; bracteis florigeris dense imbricatis, peracute carinatis, rigidis, glabris laevissimisque, ad 22 mm longis, sepala longe superantibus. Flores erecti, ad 20 mm longi; sepalis antico libero posticis fere medium usque connatis, chartaceis, lanceolatis, longe acutis, ad 16 mm longis. Petala luteo-albida, stamina superantia.

Ecuador: ohne nahere Ortsangabe, in Anden von Central-Ecuador (Andre n. 4475 bis), Prov. Riobamba, bei S. Jorge (Sodiro n. 20), bei Chinchanga (Poortman n. 478).

Tillandsia confinis L. B. Smith, Phytologia 4: 218,pl. 2,figs. 5-7. 1953.
Desc. from S&D p704-5

Plant stemless, 3-7 dm high.
Leaves many in an infundibuliform rosette, 3-4 dm long;
Sheaths ample, elliptic, 13-20 cm long, inconspicuously punctulate-lepidote, smooth and sublustrous, pale green splotched with dark purple especially on the inner face;
Blades straight, narrowly triangular, attenuate, 25-35 mm wide, covered beneath with minute appressed cinereous scales, soon glabrous above.
Scape erect, slender, glabrous;
Scape-bracts strict, imbricate, subfoliaceous, the upper ones with red sheaths.
Inflorescence laxly bipinnate; primary bracts broadly ovate, the lower ones caudate, the upper apiculate;
Spikes spreading, linear-lanceolate, 6-10 cm long, 15-20 mm wide, strongly complanate, 8-14-flowered with 2-3 sterile bracts at the base.
Floral bracts strongly imbricate and concealing the rhachis, lance-oblong, acute, sharply carinate, 18-24 mm long, exceeding the sepals, even, lustrous, glabrous or nearly so;
Pedicels 1 mm long.
Sepals linear, acute, 17-22 mm long with the posterior ones semi-connate, keeled, nerved, subchartaceous, sparsely lepidote with minute appressed brown scales;
Petals white, the blades 7 mm long;
Stamens included.
Capsule slenderly cylindric, beaked, 27-40 mm long.

Tillandsia confinis var confinis
Tillandsia subtropicalis L. B. Smith, Phytologia 8: 505, pl. 3, figs. 8-10. 1963. Type. Hacienda Casana, Tipuani, Larecaja, La Paz, Bolivia, Buchtien 7185 (US), 5 Aug 1922.
Inflorescence 7-28 cm long;
Lower primary bracts caudate but shorter than the axil¬lary spikes.
Type. Ferreyra 1686 (holotype USM), Tingo Maria to Pucallpa, Loreto, Peru, 28 Feb 1947.
DISTRIBUTION. Epiphytic in forest, 600-2800 m alt, northwestern South Ameri-ca. COLOMBIA. MAGDALENA: Codazzi, Espiritu Santo Valley, Sierra de Perija, 14 Feb 1945, Grant 10934 (COL, US). ANTIOQUIA: Rio Dolores above Angostura, Lehmann 7592 (K). VENEZUELA. ZULIA: Perija, 29 Dec 1950, Gines 1984 (US). Amazonas: Rio Yatua, Cerro de la Neblina, 13 jan 1954, Maguire, Wurdack & Bunting 37287 (NY, US); Raudal Gallineta, Rio Siapa, 21 Ju1 1959, Wurdack & Adderley 43561 (NY, US). ECUADOR. LOJA: Hacienda Horta-Naque, 11 Oct 1946, Espinosa E-1039 (GH). NAPO: Mera, Mar 1956, Asplund 19613 (S); 19952 (S); Talag, Tena, 9 Jul 1960, Grubb et al 94 (K, OXF, US). BOLIVIA. LA PAZ, Larecaja: Hacienda Casana, Tipuani, 15 Oct 1922, Buchtien 7187 (US). BRAZIL. AMAZONAS: Serra de la Neblina, 1966, Silva & Brazao 60942 (NY, US).

Tillandsia subtropicalis L. B. Smith, Phytologia 8: 505, pl. 3, figs. 8-10. 1963. See above
A T. kuntzeana Mez, cui affinis, foliorum laminis supra glabris, scapi bracteis glabris, bracteis florigeris haud incurvatis, floribus multo minoribus differt.
Stemless, flowering 3 dm, high;
leaves 15 or more in a funnelform rosette, 20-23 cm, long;
sheaths broadly elliptic, 6-7 cm. long, dark castaneous, densely and minutely appressed-lepidote;
blades ligulate with a long attenuate apex, 15-20 mm, wide, covered beneath with fine appressed cinereous scales, glabrous above;
scape erect, slender;
scape-bracts densely imbricate and concealing the scape, the lowest subfoliaceous, the others elliptic, glabrous and lustrous except for the small narrow blade;
inflorescence laxly bipinnate from 5-7 spikes, glabrous;
primary bracts ovate, about half as long as the spikes;
spikes subspreading, subsessile, lanceolate, acute, 45 mm. long, 12 mm. wide, strongly complanate, dense;
floral bracts imbricate and wholly concealing the rhachis, ovate, acute, 18 mm long, sharply carinate with a straight apex, coriaceous, even, lustrous;
sepals lanceolate, acute, 15mm. long, the posterior carinate, 2/3 connate.
P1. III, fig. 8: Apex of leaf x 1/2; fig. 9: Inflorescence x 1/2; fig. 10: Posterior sepals x 1.
Type in the U. S. National Herbarium, collected in the sub tropical region, at Hacienda Casana on the road to Tipuani, Department of La Pas, Bolivia, 1400 metres altitude, August 5. 1922, by 0. Buchtien (no. 7185).
BOLIVIA: Same as type, October 15, 1922, Buchtien 7187 (US).

Tillandsia confinis var caudate L. B. Smith, Phytologia 8: 499. 1963.
Tillandsia abysmophila Smith & Steyermark. Annals of Missouri Bot. Garden, Vol 73, 714-5, 1986
Inflorescence 3 dm long;
Lower primary bracts to 15 cm long, their caudate-attenuate blades much exceeding the axillary spikes but their sheaths much shorter.
Type. Romero-Castarieda 7323 (holotype US, isotype COL), Sabania Rubia, Manaure road, Mun. Robles, Serrania de Perija, Magdalena, Colombia, 3 Mar 1959. DISTRIBUTION. Epiphytic in forest, 2700-2800 m alt, Colombia.
COLOMBIA. MAGDALENA: Quebrada de Floridablanca, Manure. Sierra de Perija, 11 Nov. 1959, Cuatrecasas & Romero-Castaneda 25244 (US).

Tillandsia abysmophila L. B. Smith & Steyermark, Annals of Missouri Bot. Garden, Vol 73, 714-5, 1986 TREATED AS A SYNONYM OF T. confinis var. caudate BY SMITH & TILL in Phytologia 63:438.1987
TYPE: Venezuela. Amazonas: Dept. Rio Negro, Cerco Aratitiyope, epifita en selva alta, a lo largo de un riachuelo afluente a Rio Manipitare; 990-1,670 m alt., Lat. 2°10' N, Julian A. Steyermark, Paul Berry & Francisco Delascio 130135 (holotype, US; isotypes, NY, VEN).

Verisimiliter acaulis, florifera ca. 6 dm alta. Folia ca. 5 dm longa, subtus squamis adpressis cinereis in centro atris dense vestita; vaginis ellipticis, 10 cm lon¬gis, supra lepidotis; laminis ligulatis, acuminatis, 3 cm latis, supra glabris.
Scapus erectus, gracilis; scapi bracteis subfoliaceis, dense imbricatis. Inflorescentia laxe bipinnatim paniculata, 26 cm longa, glabra; bracteis primariis late , ovatis, quam spicis brevioribus, inferioribus lineari-laminatis; spicis divergentibus, sessilibus, lineari-lanceolatis, 8.5 cm longis, 1.5 cm latis, complanatis. Bracteae florigerae ovatae, acutae, 25 mm longae, carinatae, rigidae, laevigatae. Sepala linearia, acuta, 22 mm longa, bracteis florigeris inclusa, posteriora carinata, alte connata.

46a. Plant flowering 1-2 m high; primary bracts lanceolate, acute. Colombia, Ecuador, Peru - 9: T. pyramidata
46a. Plant flowering ca. 0.6 m high; lower pri¬mary bracts linear-laminate. Venezuela. - 9.1. T. abysmophila

Plant very likely acaulis, flowering to 60cm high.
Leaves ca 50cm long, underneath with grey appressed scales with dense dark centres.
Sheaths elliptic, 10cm long, lepidote on the upper side.
Blades ligulate, acuminate, 3cm wide, upper side glabrous.
Scape erect, slender.
Scape bracts sub-foliate, densely imbricate.
Inflorescence laxly bipinnate panicle, 26cm long, glabrous.
Primary bracts wide ovate, shorter than the spikes, lower ones with linear blades
Spikes divergent, sessile, linear-lanceolate, 8.5cm long, 1.5cm wide, complanate.
Floral bracts ovate, acute, 25mm long, carinate, rigid, smooth and polished.
Sepals linear, acute, 22mm long, enclosed by the floral bracts, posterior pair carinate, high connate.

Tillandsia confinis var. minor Rutschmann & Rauh Trop. Subtrop. Pflanzenwelt 65:47-9 1988 treated as a synonym of T. confertiflora in Binomial listing 6. 1998

T. coinaensis note, from Derek Butcher...
"Tillandsia ‘Silver Coin’ would have been named by Derek Butcher in March 2011 for a plant imported to Australia from BirdRock, Cal, USA in the 1990’s as either T. coinaensis or T. confertiflora.
The plant does not seem to correspond to either species having a large inflorescence that is hanging. This tendency to hang may be caused by growing the plant out of bright sunlight or a much lower altitude. Investigation as to identity continues. Apparently the BirdRock plant was identified as T. coinaensis by Harry Luther so leave as is.

Updated 22/01/22